Science and Technology in Ancient India:
Astronomy and Geometry were one of the most focused areas in ancient India. It became the base of many other civilizations like the Greeks, Egyptians, Babylonians, etc. The famous Pythagoras Theorem can be found in Baudhayan’s Sulba Sutras centuries before the existence of Pythagoras. Most notable mathematical inventions include the concept of Zero, the decimal system, and various developments in the fields of algebra, trigonometry, etc.
Important mathematical treatises of that time are ‘Aryabhatiya’ by Aryabhatt, ‘Brihat Samhita’ by Varahmir, ‘Brahma Sputa Siddhant’ by Brahmagupt, ‘Ganit Sara Sangraha’ by Mahaviracharya etc. Charak and Sushrut have been pioneers in the fields of medicine and Surgery respectively. Their works, ‘Charaksamhita’ and ‘Sushrutsamhita’ are a subject of research even today.
Science and Technology in Medieval India:
Due to a series of foreign invasions, Medieval India saw a massive decline in the development of science. Important mathematical works include ‘Lilavati Kammdipidika’, ‘Suddhantadipika’ by Gangadhar, ‘Ganitasara’ by Sridhara, and ‘Lilavati’ by Bhaskaracharya, etc. Nilkantha Somayaji wrote his famous ‘Tantrasamgraha’. He also developed a planetary model, the same model was years later presented by Tycho Brahe and is today known as the Tychonic system.
Madhava of Sangamagrama laid the foundations for the development of calculus and was a pioneer of infinite series. He gave a very accurate value of pi and gave the famous expansion series for it which is today known as the Madhava-Leibniz series.
Science and Technology in Modern India:
Phase I (1947-1967)
This was the era of induction of IITs in India, followed by various ICT progressions like Radio Broadcasting in 1927 and TCS in 1968.
Famous satellites like Aryabhatta, Bhaskara I and Bhaskara II, Apple satellite, Rohini satellite, and INSAT I-B were launched.
Phase II (1967-1987)
India’s first nuclear test Operation ‘Smiling Buddha’ was held on 18th May 1974 at Pokhran, Rajasthan.
With America’s support, India began its first nuclear power generation at Tarapur Atomic Station.
Development in Agriculture systems: Rise of Green Revolution, giving high-yield food and eminent use of chemical fertilizers.
Phase III (1987-Present)
Establishment of the Department of Biotechnology and Department of Ocean Development under the Department of Science and Technology.
India entered the space mission with the successful launch of Chandrayaan-I on 22 Oct 2008 and later launched Chandrayaan-II on 22 July 2019.
ISRO pioneered Mangalyaan on 5 November 2013, which was the second space mission of India, making India the first Asian nation to reach the Mars Orbit.