Updated: Oct 3
The case of India’s geopolitics is a very complicated one, arising due to her unique geography. India has a vast 7516.6 km coastline and it shares a territorial border of 15106.7 km with seven different nations and a sea border with two other nations. India’s neighbors are Afghanistan, Pakistan, China, Bhutan, Nepal, Myanmar, Bangladesh, Sri Lanka, and Maldives.
Pakistan: Located in the northwest of India, it shares a border of 3323 km with India. Once a part of India, it has been continuously in a tussle with India since its formation in 1947. It occupies an illegal territory of 78000 sq. km. known as Pakistan-occupied-Kashmir (PoK) and has fought 4 major wars with India. It shares its border with Jammu and Kashmir, Ladakh, Punjab, Rajasthan and Gujarat. Its capital is Islamabad and its official language is Urdu.
China: It lies in the north of India and shares a vast border of 3488 km with India. India and China have highly strained relations and China poses a huge threat to India in terms of both border and internal security. It shares its border with Jammu and Kashmir, Himachal Pradesh, Uttrakhand, Sikkim, and Arunachal Pradesh. Its capital is Beijing and its official language is Mandarin.
Bangladesh: It is located in the East of India and shares the longest border with India 4096.7 km. The borders are very porous and have resulted in huge migration for decades. It shares its border with West Bengal, Mizoram, Meghalaya, Tripura, and Assam. Its capital is Dhaka and its official language is Bengali.
Afghanistan: Located in the Northwest of India, it shares a small border of 106 km with India. India had good diplomatic relations with Afghanistan after 1947. It shares its border with J&K (POK Part). Its capital is Kabul and its official language is Dari and Pashto.
Sri Lanka: It shares a sea border with India and shares common cultural roots with India. After independence, Sri Lanka faced a major fight between Tamils and Sinhalese. Its capitals are Colombo and Sri Jayawardenepura Kotte, and its official currency is Sri Lankan Rupee.
Nepal: Sharing common cultural roots with India, it is a small country that has an area of 1,47,181 square kilometers. It shares a border of 1751 Km. with Sikkim, West Bengal, Bihar, Uttar Pradesh, and Uttarakhand. The Indo-Nepal Treaty of Friendship was signed in 1950 and was readjusted in 2014. Its capital is Kathmandu and its official language is Nepalese.
Bhutan: It is a small peaceful country with an area of 38, 394 sq km. It shares a border of 699 km with West Bengal, Sikkim, Arunachal Pradesh, and Assam. The Indo-Bhutan Treaty of Peace and Friendship, 1949 later amended in 2007 played a major role in maintaining bilateral Indo-Bhutan relations. Its capital is Thimpu and its official language is Dzongkha.
Myanmar: Located in the East of India, it shares a border of 1643 km with Arunachal Pradesh, Manipur, Mizoram, and Nagaland. The borders are very porous and are often used by the Maoist insurgents to create instability in India. In 1951, India and Myanmar signed a treaty of friendship and recently India established ‘Twin Track Diplomacy’ with it. Its capital is Naypyidaw and its official language is Burmese.
Maldives: It is a small island nation located in the southwest of India and shares a sea border with India. In 1972, India established a CDA mission and a resident High Commissioner in 1980. Its capital is Male and its official language is Dhivehi.