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Organizations, Institutions, and Departments for the Development of Science and Technology in India

Role of Science and Technology in the Developing World in the 21st Century

Development in Science and Technology is impacting a lot of dimensions of our lives like communications, lifestyles, and transactions. Some of the benchmarks of technology in the 21st century are Biotechnology, Telecommunication, Microprocessors, and Nano-Technology. A few innovations include Cognitive Augmentation, Genetic Engineering, Proton Cancer Therapy etc. Along with years of advancement, come the risks and challenges. The issue of lack of skilled people, unavailability of resources, and lack of funds is also a constant hovering issue. Successful countries are capable of conducting research smoothly in all these areas due to the investment of public funds for the finance of research and development in crucial areas.


Role of Science and Technology in the developing world

Ministries and Departments for Science and Technology under Central Government

  • Department of Science and Technology (DST): Established in May 1971, it's a nodal department to promote new areas of science and technology. Programs like Inspire, Scheme for Early Attraction of Talent, Scholarship for Higher Education (SHE), and Assured Opportunity for Research Careers (AORC) come under it.

  • Department of Scientific and Industrial Research (DSIR): Established in 1986, DSIR is a Ministry of Science and Technology division for the promotion, development, and utilization of indigenous technologies. Organizations like the Council of Scientific and Industrial Research (CSIR) come under this. It has 40 institutes and around 100 field stations dedicated to research and development in well-defined areas.

  • Department of Atomic Energy (DAE): Established in 1954, works directly under the control of the Prime Minister through Presidential Order. DAE is concerned with Nuclear Power Technology development and its uses in medicine, agriculture, basic research, and industrial fields.

  • Department of Space (DoS): Established in 1972, with the objective of: 

  • Promotion of space science and technology development,

  • Achievement of becoming self-reliant and, 

  • Advanced space applications.

  • Department of Biotechnology (DBT): Established in 1982, for the identification of priority sectors and development of long-term perspective for biotechnology in India. A separate DBT was established in 1986 with the motives of popularizing Biotechnology for large-scale use and promoting R&D and Human Resources in it.

  • Department of Ocean Development (DOD): Established in 1981 it worked directly under the control of the Prime Minister, later in 1982 it became an independent department. In 2006, it became the Ministry of Ocean Development (MoOD). The primary function of this department is organizing, coordinating, and promoting ocean development activities in the nation.

  • Indian Council of Medical Research (ICMR): Established in 2007 to strengthen health research capacity, organize data systems and research platforms, and enhance traditional medicines. It has missions like the India TB Research Consortium (ITRC) and End AIDS by 2030 under it. ICMR has been targeted for the elimination of diseases like Kala-Azar, Filariasis, Leprosy, and Malaria. 


Logo of Ministry of Science and Technology

Science and Technology Policies in India

  • Science, Technology, and Innovation Policy: This was created in 2013 by the Prime Minister with the main goal of the Science, Research, and Innovation System for High Technology led path for India (SRISHTI). 

  • National AYUSH Mission: It was created in 2014 under the Ministry of Health and Family Welfare. Its main objective is to give universal access to AYUSH healthcare across the nation.


Logo of National Ayush Mission

Stem Education: Strengthening Policies for Future Skilled Workforce. This was created because of concern about India’s Education System not being able to produce a skilled workforce and this works on challenges like poor infrastructure, lack of quality teachers, an overhaul of the science curriculum, and many more.

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