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Updated: Apr 14

The Constitution of India begins with a Preamble. In it are outlined the Constitution's goals, ideals, and guiding principles. These goals, which stem from the Preamble, have directly and indirectly influenced the salient features of the Constitution.

Parliament Building

  • The Indian Constitution is the lengthiest and most detailed of all written Constitutions of the world. Originally it consisted of 395 Articles divided into 22 Parts and 8 Schedules. 

  • It establishes a parliamentary form of Government both at the Centre and the States. The essence of this form of Government is its responsibility to the legislature. 

  • The President is the constitutional head of the State. The real executive power is vested in the Council of Ministers whose head is the Prime Minister. The Council of Ministers is collectively responsible to the Lok Sabha. 

  • The members of the Lok Sabha are elected directly by the people based on Adult Franchise. The old system of communal electorates was abolished and the uniform adult suffrage system was adopted wherein every person above 18 years of age was given the right to elect representatives for the legislatures. 

  • The Indian Constitution witnesses a unique blend of rigidity and flexibility. A rigid Constitution requires a special method of amendment for any of its provisions while in a flexible Constitution, any provisions can be amended by ordinary legislative process. The fact that the Indian Constitution has been amended 105 times since its adoption proves the characterization of it, as rigid and flexible, right. 

  • The incorporation of a formal declaration of Fundamental Rights in Part III of the Constitution is deemed to be a distinguishing feature of a democratic State. The State cannot make a law that takes away or abridges any of the rights of the citizens guaranteed in Part III. However, these rights are not absolute, they are subject to certain restrictions.

  • The Directive Principles of the State Policy contained in Part IV of the Constitution set out aims and objectives to be taken up by the States in the governance of the country. Unlike the Fundamental Rights, these are not justiciable. 

  • The most remarkable feature of the Indian Constitution is that it is a federation with strong centralizing territory. This implies that during the proclamation of emergency, all powers are centralized in the Union Government, and the Constitution though being federal acquires a unitary character.

  • ‘There is no right without a remedy’. For this very purpose, an independent and impartial judiciary with the power of judicial review has been established under the Indian Constitution. 

  • Apart from being the custodian of the rights of citizens it also determines the limits of power of the Centre and States. Though the Constitution of India is federal and provides for dual polity i.e. Centre and States, it provides for single citizenship for the whole of India. 

  • The Constitution (42nd Amendment) Act, 1976 introduced a Code of ten ‘Fundamental Duties’ for citizens which are just basic norms of democratic conduct and democratic behaviors. 

Constitution Book

As per the demands of the country, our Constitution had taken the finest characteristics of most of the world's major Constitutions. Despite borrowing from practically every Constitution in the world, ours contains numerous distinguishing aspects that set it apart from others.


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